recorded memories of school the poet Horace describes his teacher Orbilius Pupillus as fond of flogging This early educational system however is a far cry from education for the masses Estimates assume that a tenth of the population gets to enjoy it And the num ber of those who do dramatically drops with the collapse of the Roman Empire In the Medieval Period cities are no longer the main places of learning They re now pri marily found in abbeys where the libraries from antiquity are hoarded The more than 2 000 scripts that have been preserved in the Abbey library of Saint Gall in Switzer land founded in the 8th century bear witness to this The importance of education only changes again when at the end of the Middle Ages new cities are founded and the ideas of antiquity are rediscovered In many cities gram mar schools and universities are established The art of printing buds in the city The most important pioneer of printing is the son of a merchant in Mainz Germany In the middle of the 15th century Johannes Gutenberg develops a technique for making type pieces that can be individually cast and arranged quickly Movable type is an invention that pro pels humanity into a new era and restores the former role of cities as centers of learning By 1500 as many as 252 cities have printing shops This is where books and subsequently newspapers are produced and the major ity of their readers are found American media theorist Neil Postman fittingly put this development in a nut shell If the telescope was the eye that gave access to a new world of facts and new methods of obtaining them then the printing press was the larynx Subsequently education becomes systematized frequently starting at urban universities In the 17th century Johann Amos Comenius a Czech pedagogue who also studied in Heidelberg Germany advocates mandatory schooling for everyone irrespective of so cial origin and gender His idea catches on Austria s empress Maria Theresia introduces mandatory schooling as early as in 1774 However in spite of all the decrees issued by local rulers school only begins to reach all children in the course of the 19th centu ry and clearly more effectively in the city than in rural regions where in village schools for all grades a sin gle teacher may teach as many as 100 pupils of vari ous ages The curriculum is more varied in the city as well In almost all countries of the world there s still an achievement gap between students in urban and ru ral areas according to the Programme for International Student Assessment PISA A larger and more reliable educational offering and a more varied cultural and so cial environment speak for the city according to PISA The education offensive driven in the 18th and 19th centuries primarily in the cities ultimately if not earlier pays off when factories emerging in the course of industrialization create a high demand for skilled workers Educational institutions have evolved over centuries into an important element of urban iden tities The high tech location of Silicon Valley for in stance originated as Stanford Industrial Park right next to the famous university in California Many of its grad uates started their own businesses there Smog as a next door neighbor A third aspect without which modern cities are in conceivable is the way in which the previously mentioned industrial revolution has influenced them The invention of the steam engine in the 18th century makes manufac turing independent of the locations of raw material sup ply and moves it into the cities followed by millions of rural residents looking for work In the 19th centu ry the population of London skyrockets to seven times its previous number Slums emerge The city becomes dirty and loud A sort of black smoke covers the city The sun seen through it is a disc without rays A thou sand noises disturb this damp dark labyrinth This 11 aqueducts supplied Rome with fresh water in the 2nd century AD The main sewage system the Cloaca Maxima was a 3 meter 9 8 feet wide 4 meter 13 1 feet high canal that has been preserved to this day with its outfall into the River Tiber as shown in this drawing Other Roman settlements such as Cologne Trier and Xanten had similar water supply and sewer systems 1 421 years old is the oldest school in the world that has continuously been providing education until today It is the King s School in the English city of Canterbury 46 47

Vorschau Schaeffler tomorrow 02-2018 EN Seite 46
Hinweis: Dies ist eine maschinenlesbare No-Flash Ansicht.
Klicken Sie hier um zur Online-Version zu gelangen.