they are trapped in the same traffic jams as other ve hicles Indonesia s capital is more advanced in this re spect Jakarta with a population of 26 million is the world s biggest city without a subway As there are cur rently no funds available to invest in one the city gov ernment chose a less costly alternative to alleviate the burden on the regional train system with its loosely knit network In 2014 construction of 15 dedicated lanes was started in which buses can bypass traffic jams a rela tively simple yet effective method that works in Jakarta as well as in other cities Another good example is Mex ico City where the local government in 2005 established bus lanes on the permanently congested Avenida de los Insurgentes Since then the buses have been rush ing past the traffic jams on the world s longest urban street with half a million passengers on board per day The various versions of buses will play an im portant part in future scenarios of local transportation as well especially in poorer countries Their purchas ing costs are relatively low they don t require major in vestments in infrastructure and can get around even in narrow spaces and hilly areas With electric motors using battery super capacitor overhead line or hydro gen technology buses can operate in the city with zero emissions A current report by information ser vices provider Bloomberg predicts that as early as in 2025 47 percent of all buses will be propelled by elec tric systems Connecting the buses with their surround ings could enhance efficiency and comfort Permanent bus stops and rigid schedules are supposed to soon be come obsolete Instead algorithms considering current passenger needs will calculate the optimum route and smartphones will guide passengers to the next boarding point Ideally door to door service may be arranged or transfers to other means of transportation without wait ing periods Of course all of these scenarios are con ceivable and feasible as driverless solutions as well A bus concept from China that like a rolling via duct was to hover 2 meters 6 6 feet above road traf fic made headlines a few years ago as well However it has since proved too utopian a vision The vertical clear ance for the cars was too low the total height too great for many bridges and cornering difficult Furthermore the Transit Elevated Bus TEB was traveling on rails that would have had to be specifically installed for this pur pose so it was more like a train than a bus Finally the initiator of the project has since been indicted for fraud Even so the utopian and failed TEB shows that buses still have plenty of potential to be tapped Cars finance public transportation A stop in London Since 2003 drivers of automo biles have had to pay a toll fee if they want to enter the As early as in 1863 London sent the first trains pulled by steam locomotives through tunnels marking the birth of the first subway that was subsequently copied by countless cities In 1875 service of the Tünel underground funicu lar line covering a 573 meter long 1 880 feet distance started This system was possibly in spired by the San Francisco cable cars that were rumbling up and down the hills at the Golden Gate pulled by long cables running below the street Around 1900 600 cars served a line network of 160 kilometers 99 4 miles At the same time Wuppertal was even twice as inno vative In 1901 service of the Suspension Rail way started a system that not only featured new technology but on its elevated single rail along the Wupper River also circumvented two topo logical obstacles lack of space on the ground and unfeasibility of an underground system due to instabilities caused by nearby mining opera tions at the time WHEN THE RAILROAD CONQUERED THE CITY The first London underground trains were pulled by puffing steam engines 91 90

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