who designed human oid and programmable automatons in the 12th century Leonardo da Vin ci may have been inspired by this early Homo sapiens 2 0 In his drawing of a ro botic knight he created the fi rst historically documented humanoid Theoretically it could have executed various movements such as mov ing its jaws straightening up its spine and beck oning Da Vinci s anatomical studies of the human body were probably of help in this project Frankenstein s forebear When it comes to creating artifi cial humans the al chemists make their mark in those days too For example in 1538 the Swiss naturalist Paracelsus describes his creation of a homunculus with horse manure and male semen which should be heated in a vessel for 40 days or for as long as it takes for it to come alive and start moving Good nourishment provided it will evolve into a rather lively human child with all its limbs A forebear of Frankenstein s monster even though it wasn t until 1888 that this creature began giving readers the creeps Less frightening but all the more realistic was the creation of the robotic duck by the master toymak er Jacques de Vaucanson in 1740 It was able to fl ap its wings quack drink water and eat kernels of grain which it was even able to excrete again via a rubber bowel A soldier with a trumpet pro duced by Friedrich Kaufmann in Dresden in 1810 is regarded as the fi rst real humanoid robot of a modern design Its value too was rather of an en tertaining than a useful kind The same applies to the Japanese compressed air humanoid Gakuten soku 1927 or the aluminum man Eric 1928 that was set in motion and remote controlled by elec tric motors and magnets In 1939 Elektro came into the world The behemoth 2 1 meters 7 feet tall and weighing 120 kilos 265 pounds was even able to speak 700 words that came from a record player All of these machines were no doubt mechani cal masterpieces of their time albeit as distant from the many stories about the idea of a smart The universal genius Leonardo da Vinci 1452 1519 designed dozens of automatically operating machines including a robotic knight These sketches are regarded as the fi rst historic documentation of a humanoid In 2002 NASA robotics expert Mark Rosheim brought da Vinci s design to life using drawings and materials from those days This model pictured has been exhibited on numerous occasions Jacques de Vaucanson 1709 1782 was a French engineer who dreamed of creating an artifi cial human that would function as accurately as possible It was to remain a dream At least his mechanical fl ute player performed a repertoire of twelve songs using a mechanical pin roller moving in two directions Even truer to life was Vaucanson s mechanical duck with more than 400 movable parts In the end tough it was just a gimmick too The fi rst fully automatic loom the Frenchman presented in 1745 was clearly more of a breakthrough achievement Around 1500 1740 44

Vorschau Schaeffler tomorrow 02-2020 EN Seite 44
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