machine that kept emerging over the centuries as Wolfgang von Kempelen s Automaton Chess Play er in 1783 there was no artifi cial intelligence at work inside Kempelens miraculous machine but a small human being From tortoises to piece workers Robotics did not experience a rapid rise until af ter the Second World War boosted on the one hand by Konrad Zuse s fi rst computer in 1938 and by the invention of the transistor in 1947 on the other The fi rst electronic autonomous robots with complex behaviors were built by William Gray Walter in 1948 However his creatures El mer and Elsie were so slow that they were nick named tortoises Today s articulated robots typically used in indus trial environments are all based on inventions by George Devol and Joseph Engelberger In 1954 they developed and built Unimate the fi rst elec tronic industrial robot According to Engelberger servo mechanisms binary logic and solid state physics were the most important tools for the de velopment of robots after the Second World War By the way in 1961 Unimate as the fi rst industri al robot worldwide ended up in manufacturing at GM s Trent plant for lifting and stacking hot metal parts from a die casting machine From then on robotics really picked up momen tum The fi rst hydraulically actuated robots ap peared in 1960 The Stanford Research Institute got the fi rst autonomously mobile robot Shakey off the ground in 1970 Shakey was even able to independently navigate by means of image pro cessing In 1973 Japanese research scientists at Waeda University in Tokyo started developing their humanoid robot Wabot 1 German robotics pioneer KUKA built Famulus the world s fi rst industrial ro bot with six electromechanically driven axes In 1974 the Swedish company Asea presented the fi rst fully electric robot IRb6 the fi rst to be pro grammed using a microcomputer In 1984 Wabot 2 delivered an impressive performance thanks to ten fi ngers and two feet the robot was able to play an organ read music and accompany a person Automaker Honda began to dedicate itself to robot ics engineering in 1986 with its research in 2004 culminating in the humanoid robot Asimo the fi rst The trumpeter created by the Dresden instrument maker Friedrich Kaufmann 1785 1865 is deemed to be the fi rst real humanoid robot and was even a step ahead of human trumpeters the machine was able to produce dyads of the same intensity and high purity or as a contemporary of Kaufmann wrote of truly heavenly harmony In the robots Elmer and Elsie created by William Gray Walter 1910 1977 light and touch sensitive sensors like nerve cells controlled a motor This enabled the tortoise like machines to actually fi nd their way around obstacles and therefore they re regarded as the fi rst electronic autonomous robots 1810 1948 45 In motion

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