The 116 meter 380 foot long Suiso Frontier the world s fi rst hydrogen tanker transports 1 250 cubic meters 44 100 cubic feet of H2 To liquefy it it s cooled down to 253 C 423 F which causes the volume to shrink to one eight hundredth of the gaseous state The liquid H2 is stored in double walled vacuum tanks Hydrogen can only provide sustainable relief to the climate if it s produced in green ways in other words by using renewable energy sources The energy chain with green hydrogen consists of the following stages With electricity from renewable energy sources hydrogen is produced by electrolysis in an emission free process and subsequently used at the same or another location to provide energy for instance through a fuel cell or in production processes The sources of the required green electricity wind sun water are largely located not only in Europe North America or Asia in other words the regions where energy is mostly consumed but also in Africa South America Australia or the Middle East among others In such regions with favorable energy conditions hydrogen can be produced in large quantities and subsequently transported regionally as well as globally The greater the distance between the place of production and consumption the more important is transportation As a material based energy carrier hydrogen has the advantage over electricity that it s easier to store over longer periods of time and in larger quantities and can be transported with greater fl exibility for instance by ships However its transportation is far more complicated than that of natural gas or oil because hydrogen has the lowest atomic mass of all elements and therefore is the most volatile gas of all Another consequence of this is that due to its low density hydrogen in its uncondensed state requires large volumes 33 kilograms 73 lb of H2 would fi ll a balloon with a diameter of 13 meters 43 feet Various physical based and material based methods can be Dr Stefan Gossens Generally in order to take advantage of hydrogen s enormous potential for a global energy transition we have to drive its industrialization and estab lish a completely new industry with new technologies production facilities and sup ply chains With our core competencies in materials forming and surface technolo gy Schaeffl er can make a major contribution to effi cient large volume production of key components such as electrolyzers and fuel cells Producing storing and transporting H2 used for transportation and storage The physical based ones include compressed storage 350 to 700 bar 5 000 to 10 000 psi liquefi cation at 253 C 423 F a combination of liquefi cation and pressure cold and cryo compressed hydrogen CcH2 or cooling down to the melting point 259 C 434 F at which hydrogen changes into a gel like substance and its energy density increases once again Currently the energy consumed by these methods amounts to between 9 and just over 30 percent of the energy contained in hydrogen Theoretically 4 to 10 percent are attainable In the material based storage method hydrogen is linked to carrier materials and subsequently split off again Most of these methods which are energy intensive as well are still in development They include metallic hybrid storage systems that due to their high weight tend to be more suitable for stationary use Microporous adsorption materials which in powder form can achieve high volumetric storage densities are at the beginning of their development The third version which has seen the furthest development so far is liquid organic hydrogen carriers LOHC The mixture that s hydrated due to the addition of hydrogen has physical chemical properties similar to those of diesel fuel and can be stored and transported accordingly There are plans for converting such LOHCs directly inside a fuel cell In this way electric propulsion power could be generated directly on board of the vehicle When carbon dioxide is added to green hydrogen the result is methane power to gas method The methane in turn can be fed into existing natural gas grids and distributed As a result emissions by the CO2 intensive heating sector can be signifi cantly reduced without incurring major infrastructural costs 60

Vorschau Schaeffler tomorrow 02-2020 EN Seite 60
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